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Definition of Euthanasia 安乐死的定义

It is defined in the broad sense as the direct intentional killing of a person as part of the medical care being offered. Active euthanasia is defined as the killing is achieved by a direct act to kill such as lethal injection. Passive euthanasia is defined as the killing is achieved by omission of treatment and in Hong Kong they prefer the term “Forgoing life-sustaining treatment (FLST)” instead of passive euthanasia. FLST is defined as withholding or withdrawing all treatments that have the potential to postpone the patient’s death and it is only appropriate when it is the wish of a mentally competent and properly informed patient or when the treatment is considered futile. The futility is determined by balancing the burdens and benefits of the treatment towards the patient and asking whether the treatment is in the best interests of the patient. The ethical principles of “nonmaleficence” (do no harm) and “beneficence” (do good) are involved. Voluntary euthanasia is the killing at the voluntary request of the patient. Non-voluntary euthanasia is when the patient killed is either not capable of making the request or has not done so. Involuntary euthanasia is defined as the killing is against the wishes of the patient and it is treated as murder. The medical and legal fields in Hong Kong limited the discussion of euthanasia to “voluntary active euthanasia”.

广义上定义为在提供医疗护理时直接故意杀死一个人。主动安乐死被定义为通过直接杀死的行为来实现的,例如致死性注射。被动安乐死的定义是通过省略治疗实现杀死,而在香港,他们更喜欢用“放弃维持生命治疗(FLST)”而不是被动安乐死。 FLST被定义为拒给或撤回所有有可能推迟患者死亡的治疗方法,只有适用于当它是精神上有能力和适当知情病人的愿望时或治疗被认为是徒劳无效时。无效是通过平衡治疗对患者的负担和益处来确定的,并询问治疗是否符合患者的最佳利益。涉及不伤害和择善的道德原则。自愿安乐死是病人自愿请求的杀死。非自愿安乐死是指病人的死亡是当无法提出要求或尚未提出请求的情况时发生。非自愿安乐死的定义是违反病人的意愿杀人,被视为谋杀。香港的医疗法律领域将安乐死的讨论限于“自愿主动安乐死”。

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